A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection in your urinary system, caused mostly by bacteria, particularly E. coli. It can affect any part of your urinary system and brings symptoms like frequent urination, discomfort while peeing, and pain in your lower back or side. Antibiotics are typically effective in treating UTIs.


What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

A UTI affects the urinary system, which includes the urethra, kidneys, and bladder. Your kidneys filter blood, creating urine by removing waste and extra water. Normally, urine moves through the urinary system without issues, but UTIs occur when bacteria enter, causing infections. The urinary system produces and stores urine, consisting of:

  • Kidneys: Small, bean-shaped organs located above the hips that filter waste from the blood, forming urine.
  • Ureters: Thin tubes transporting urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Bladder: A balloon-like organ where urine is stored before being expelled.
  • Urethra: A tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body.

The Risk and Factors of UTI

Some people are at higher risk of getting a UTI. UTIs are more common in females because their urethras are shorter and closer to the rectum. This makes it easier for bacteria to enter the urinary tract.

Other risk factors include:

  • Previous UTI occurrences
  • Sexual activity
  • Changes in the bacteria that live inside the vagina, or vaginal flora.
  • Pregnancy
  • Age (more common in older adults and young children)
  • Structural urinary tract issues like an enlarged prostate
  • Lack of hygiene, especially in children undergoing potty-training.

The Symtomps of UTI

A UTI causes inflammation in the lining of your urinary tract:

  • Pain in your abdomen, pelvic area or lower back.
  • Pressure in the lower part of your pelvis.
  • Cloudy, foul-smelling pee.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Pain when you pee.
  • Blood in your pee

Other UTIs symptoms may include:

  • Feeling extremely tired (fatigue).
  • Fever/ Chills.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Treatment and Preventions

What are the antibioticsfor a urinary tract infection?

  • Nitrofurantoin.
  • Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs).
  • Amoxicillin.
  • Cephalosporins
  • Doxycycline.
  • Fosfomycin.
  • Quinolones

What are the preventions for UTI?

  • Practice good hygiene: During the menstrual cycle, it’s also a good idea to regularly change the period products, including pads and tampons. You should also avoid using any deodorants on your vagina.
  • Drink plenty of fluids: Drinking extra fluids — water — each day can help flush out bacteria from your urinary tract.
  • Change your peeing habits: Peeing can play a big role in getting rid of bacteria. Your pee is a waste product, and each time you empty your bladder, you help remove that waste from your body.
  • Change your clothing: Tight-fitting clothing can create a moist environment, which promotes bacterial growth. Try loose-fitting clothing and cotton underwear to prevent moisture from accumulating around your urethra.