Unborn babies, also known as fetuses, spend approximately nine months in the mother's womb before being born. During this time, they undergo incredible development, growing from a single cell to a fully formed human being. Despite being hidden from the outside world, unborn babies are capable of many amazing things while in the womb. From developing unique fingerprints to responding to their mother's voice, these tiny humans are constantly active and growing. Understanding the growth and development of an unborn baby is essential for parents and caregivers to ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.


Unborn babies are capable of doing several things in the womb. Here are a few examples:

1. Moving: One of the most common things that unborn babies do in the womb is move. As they grow and develop, they start to kick, stretch, and roll around. This movement is often felt by the mother as "quickening."


Babies move inside the womb in various ways and at different stages of pregnancy. At first, the movements may be slight and barely noticeable, but as the baby grows and develops, the movements become more frequent and stronger.

The earliest movements are often described as flutters or bubbles, which can be felt around 16-20 weeks of pregnancy. As the baby gets bigger, the movements become more pronounced and may feel like kicks, punches, rolls, and even hiccups. These movements are a sign that the baby is healthy and developing properly.

Babies can move in response to different stimuli, such as loud noises, sudden movements, or changes in position. They may also move more frequently at certain times of the day, such as after a meal or during periods of activity.

It is important for expectant mothers to pay attention to their baby's movements and report any changes or concerns to their healthcare provider. Decreased fetal movement can be a sign of a problem and should be promptly evaluated.


2. Responding to stimuli: Unborn babies can respond to external stimuli such as light, sound, and touch. 


Unborn babies can respond to external stimuli as early as 8 weeks gestation, although their response becomes more refined as they continue to develop.

  • Light: By around 16 weeks gestation, the fetus has developed eyelids that can open and close. They may respond to bright light by moving away or turning their head, while dim light may not elicit any response.
  • Sound: The fetus can hear sounds from around 20 weeks gestation, and by 24 weeks they may even respond to familiar voices or music. Loud noises or sudden sounds may startle the fetus and cause them to jump or move quickly.
  • Touch: The fetus can sense touch from around 8 weeks gestation, and by around 18-20 weeks they may respond to touch on their face, palms, and soles of their feet. They may move away from touch that is uncomfortable or startling, and may also respond to gentle caresses or strokes.

It's important to note that every baby is unique and may respond differently to external stimuli. Additionally, there are limitations to the types of stimuli that can be used to elicit a response from the fetus, as some may be harmful or uncomfortable. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider regarding fetal development or stimulation concerns.


3. Sucking and Swallowing: Unborn babies can practice their sucking and swallowing reflexes in the womb. They may suck on their fingers or thumbs or even on the umbilical cord.

Sucking and swallowing are important reflexes that babies need to develop to feed properly after birth. These reflexes allow babies to latch onto the breast or bottle nipple and swallow the milk.

Babies start practicing these reflexes in the womb as early as 12 weeks gestation. They may begin by sucking on their fingers or thumbs, which can be seen on ultrasound. By 20 weeks gestation, most babies have developed a strong sucking and swallowing reflex.

Babies may also practice sucking and swallowing by drinking amniotic fluid. This fluid is rich in nutrients and helps to nourish the developing baby. As the baby swallows the fluid, it passes through the digestive system and is eventually excreted as urine.

In some cases, babies may also suck on the umbilical cord. This is called "umbilical cord prolapse," and it occurs when the cord becomes trapped between the baby's head and the cervix during delivery. This can be a serious complication that requires immediate medical attention.

Overall, sucking and swallowing are important developmental milestones for babies in the womb, and they play a crucial role in preparing babies for feeding after birth.


4. Hiccupping: Hiccups are common in unborn babies and can be felt by the mother as rhythmic movements.

Hiccupping is a common reflex that occurs in unborn babies. It is believed to help develop the muscles needed for breathing and digestion. Hiccups in the womb are characterized by rhythmic movements that can be felt by the mother. They are caused by a sudden contraction of the diaphragm, which causes the baby to take in amniotic fluid.

Hiccupping in unborn babies is a normal occurrence and is not a cause for concern. It typically happens several times a day and can last for several minutes at a time. The mother may notice a regular pattern of hiccups, such as after meals or during periods of activity.

Hiccupping in unborn babies is usually a sign of healthy development. However, if hiccups become prolonged or occur frequently, it is advisable to consult a healthcare provider. This may indicate an underlying issue that requires medical attention.


5. Dreaming: It is believed that unborn babies may dream in the womb. They spend a lot of time in REM sleep, which is the phase of sleep associated with dreaming.

It is still unclear whether or not unborn babies dream, as it is difficult to study their brain activity and behavior in the womb. Some scientists believe that the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep, which is associated with dreaming in adults, may occur in unborn babies as early as the 28th week of pregnancy. However, others argue that the development of the brain and nervous system is not advanced enough for true dreaming to occur until after birth. Additionally, it is not known what unborn babies may dream about, if they do in fact dream.

There is still much research to be done on whether or not unborn babies can dream, as it is difficult to measure brain activity in the womb. However, some studies have suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dreaming, does occur in the third trimester of pregnancy.

During REM sleep, the brain becomes very active, and the eyes move back and forth rapidly. This is the stage of sleep during which most dreaming occurs. Some researchers have used ultrasound imaging to observe unborn babies during REM sleep, and have noted rapid eye movements, which may suggest that they are dreaming.

It is also believed that unborn babies may experience sensory input from the outside world during their dreams. For example, they may hear sounds or feel movement from the mother's activities, which could potentially influence their dream content.

While more research is needed to fully understand the extent to which unborn babies can dream, it is clear that they do experience sleep and may be able to have some form of dream-like experiences.


6. Learning: Studies have shown that unborn babies can learn and remember. For example, they can recognize their mother's voice and may even be soothed by music that was played regularly during pregnancy.


Research suggests that unborn babies are capable of learning and retaining information from their environment. For example, a study conducted by the University of Helsinki found that unborn babies were able to learn and remember sounds that they heard in the womb. In the study, pregnant women played a specific sound repeatedly to their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. After the babies were born, they were tested by playing the same sound and a new sound, and researchers found that the babies were more responsive to the sound they had heard in the womb, indicating that they had learned and remembered it.

Other studies have also found that unborn babies are able to recognize their mother's voice and distinguish it from other voices. This suggests that they are able to learn and remember the sounds they hear in the womb.

It is important to note, however, that while unborn babies may be capable of learning and remembering, their cognitive abilities are still developing and they are not yet fully formed individuals. The information they are able to process and retain is limited, and they are not capable of complex thought or problem-solving.



7. Reacting to emotions: Unborn babies can sense their mother's emotions and may react to them. For example, they may become more active when the mother is happy or agitated when the mother is stressed.


Unborn babies are not only physically connected to their mothers but also emotionally connected. Research has shown that unborn babies are capable of sensing their mother's emotions and reacting to them. For instance, when a mother is happy, her baby may become more active in the womb, while when she is stressed or anxious, her baby may become more agitated.

The reason why unborn babies can sense their mother's emotions is that the stress hormones released by the mother can cross the placenta and reach the baby. When the baby is exposed to these stress hormones, it can cause changes in the baby's heart rate and movements.

It is also important to note that the mother's emotional state during pregnancy can have long-lasting effects on the unborn baby's development. Prenatal stress has been linked to various negative outcomes, including lower birth weight, behavioral problems, and developmental delays.

Therefore, it is crucial for expectant mothers to take care of their emotional well-being during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcome for their babies. This can include practicing relaxation techniques, seeking support from loved ones, and engaging in activities that promote a positive mood.